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The ultimate goal of a software project is to put into production a system that meets or exceeds the customer's expectations. This of course this implies the existence of working code. In professional organizations code is developed by programmers working from a set of architecture and design models. The architecture and related analysis and design artifacts are necessary byproducts of the development process; they are a means to and end, and not an end it itself.

MIC screen shotA software architecture is modeled using various UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagram types. These diagrams must relate to one another in a logical and consistent manner and always reflect the current state of the code. Some tool vendors (e.g. Borland and IBM) sell IDEs capable of maintaining consistency between the model and the code, albeit not for all diagram types. This capability is often referred to as "round-trip engineering".

Modern code editors allow the programmer to assign different colors to program elements such as keywords, strings, and comments. Colors are also used to highlight things such as errors, warnings and differences. Not surprisingly, the consistent use of color in a source code editor makes programming more efficient. In a similar way, the use of 4-colors in software models makes software developers more efficient by adding another dimension that increases semantic content, exposes useful patterns as well as modeling errors, and helps reduce entropy. But color alone is not enough. We need to apply two other concepts: "Archetypes" and the "Domain-Neutral Component". The modeling in color (MIC) section provides the details of this method.

4 plus 1 architecture view

The top-level architecture model of a software-intensive system is best described by five interlocking views: Use-case, Design, Process, Implementation, and Deployment. The architecture is decomposed into these five essential views in order to manage the complexity associated with analyzing the problem, designing the solution, and mapping the solution into an implementation.


At the center of this concept is the use-case view which drives the development of the surrounding views. The use-case view is constructed to emulate the behavior desired by the user.

If developers use the requirements document containing statements of the form, "The system shall ... this, The system shall ... that", as the reference for programming then what you end up with is a functional decomposition type-of-design which doesn't map naturally to the problem domain nor does it take advantage of abstractions provided in object-oriented programming languages. It also results in more code then is necessary.

Each of the four views shown above provides a different window into the behavior, organization, and structure of the system and focuses on a particular aspect of the design. Each view can stand alone so that different stakeholders can focus on the issues of the system’s architecture that most concerns them.

Any UML diagram type may be used in a given view to serve the purpose of capturing a requirement or a design decision, however, certain diagram types are specifically suited for in a particular view. For example, the use-case view always has use-case, sequence and communication diagrams. The design view always has package, class, and object diagrams. The process view always has activity and state-machine diagrams. The implementation view may contain component diagrams but its main purpose is to show the hierarchical organization of directories and packages and the location of files within that hierarchy. The deployment view of a system encompasses the nodes that form the system’s hardware topology. This view addresses the distribution, delivery, and installation of the parts that make up the physical system. The static aspects of this view are captured in deployment and component diagrams; the dynamic aspects of this view are captured in interaction-overview, state-machine, and activity diagrams. These five views are orthogonal to one other and yet they interact – nodes in the deployment view hold components in the implementation view that in turn, represent the physical realization of classes, interfaces, collaborations, and active classes from the design and process views.

Use-case view

Central to the discussion of a software process is the concept of a use-case view, which is the starting point of any analysis and design work since it describes the behavior of the system as seen by its end users, analysts, testers, and implementers. The emphasis of a use-case is on what the system does, rather than how it does it. This view serves to specify the forces that will shape the overall system architecture. Hence its location at the middle of the diagram.

The use-case view is very helpful for determining features and capturing requirements since new use-cases often generate new requirements as the system is analyzed and the design takes shape. Also, the notational simplicity makes use-case diagrams a good vehicle for developers to communicate with clients, and the collection of scenarios for a use-case may suggest a suite of test cases for those scenarios.

A use-case represents a collection of scenarios for a single task or goal. An actor is who or what initiates the events involved in that task. Actors are simply roles that people or objects, (e.g. an external sensor) play in the scenario.

Scenarios are closely connected to interaction diagrams. Interaction diagrams emphasize the flow of control from object to object. An interaction diagram is a single instance of a use-case that implements a scenario by using collaborating objects drawn from the solution domain to realize the scene. The behavior described by a scenario validates the model if it is able to successfully complete. That is to say, if an object or message in the scenario is missing or incomplete then the scene will not be able to successfully complete the task. At the code-level we would say that the task would not execute. It is much more cost effective to discover missing objects or deficient messages in the behavior model then it is in the code.

Each use-case is represented by primary scenarios, (happy cases), and secondary scenarios, when things go wrong. For every primary scenario, there should be at least 3 or 4 secondary scenarios. Scenarios should be kept relatively simple. An interaction diagram used to validate a scenario should be able to fit on a single A3 sheet of paper in landscape format. Where this is not possible, the design is probably too complex and a redesign or re-factoring is probably necessary.

The most important thing to remember when building use-case models is that a use-case is not a function or a technical specification, but rather conceptual models that describe a small story about some way to use the system. Therefore, do not simply denote all the things that the system needs to do, otherwise you will end up with a functional decomposition, which is NOT the purpose of a use-case. According to IBM, a use-case “defines a sequence of actions performed by a system that yields an observable result of value to an actor”. In other words, a good use-case represents an identifiable business transaction that has business value from the end-users perspective. Therefore, focus on the value that the actor gets from the system and not on how you can subdivide and structure the functionality. Your approach must be opportunistic rather than deterministic, lateral rather than linear. Technical requirements will appear in nested use-case diagrams and also in the functional and supplementary requirements specification documents.

The real purpose of a use-case is to describe a story (a case) of how someone or something will use the system to do something that is useful to them. It describes what the system does at a conceptual level so that we can understand enough to decide if the system will do the right thing or not.

To select good use case names you need to focus on names that reflect the goals of the actors; you must name use-cases from the perspective of the actor, not the system. For example, Process Ticket Order and Display Schedule are things the system does and therefore, they are NOT good use-case names. Order Tickets and View Schedule are goals of the system’s users and are thus good use-case names.

To be successful at use-case modeling for the purpose of exploring the interplay between the system and its actors you must be able to think abstractly and have a high tolerance for incompleteness. In other words, you must be able to stop thinking linearly as if a use-case was a procedure, a flow chart, a theorem, or a fault isolation manual. Just as some people cannot see the hidden picture in a stereogram no matter how hard they try, some developers (often excellent programmers) cannot achieve the cognitive opaqueness needed to create a meaningful use-case.

The static aspects of the use-case view are naturally captured in use-case diagrams; the dynamic aspects of this view are captured in interaction diagrams, activity diagrams, and even state machine diagrams in special cases where it is necessary to focus on an object undergoing a process.

Design view

The design view of a system encompasses the classes, interfaces, and collaborations that form the vocabulary of the problem and its solution. This view primarily supports the features that the system must provide to its end users as well as the structural requirements such as design patterns. Objects that appear in use-case interaction diagrams are instances of the classes that appear in the design view. The static aspects of this view are captured in class diagrams, object diagrams, and package diagrams; the dynamic aspects of this view are captured in sequence/communication diagrams, state-machine diagrams, and activity diagrams.

Process view

The process view encompasses the threads and processes that form the system’s concurrency and synchronization mechanisms. It describes the tasks involved in the system's execution, their interactions and configurations, as well as the allocation of objects and classes to tasks. Due to the impact on performance, scalability, and throughput that the process view has on the system, all architecturally significant processes must be modeled.

Because activity diagrams are designed for modeling the dynamics of business and system processes, they are especially valuable in the process view to show the flow of control between activities involved in a process and how these activities depend on one another.

An activity is an artifact in the domain that represents a unit of work. Each activity maps to an object at some level of abstraction within the system. For example, this object could be a subsystem, a component, or a class. If too many activities are assigned to the same object then that object could form a bottleneck and "overheat". Such hotspots can be detected and measured with a runtime profiling tool. An analysis of the workflow distribution in an activity model should allow you to avoid potential hotspots.

In an activity diagram a "swim-lane" is provided for each subsystem/component that appears in the process scenario. The objective is to assign work to each component/class in such a way as to minimize coupling between swim-lanes while at the same time distributing work loads evenly (load balancing) to prevent hotspots.

Activity diagrams emphasize the flow of control from activity to activity and represent another way to describe a use-case scenario. For example, in the use-case, “Withdraw money from a bank account through an ATM”, we can identify objects and their activities as follows: Customer.InsertCard, Customer.EnterPIN, Bank.Authorize, Customer.EnterAmount, ATM.ShowBalance, ATM.EjectCard, Customer.TakeCard, and so on. If the use-case model is able to execute (at the analysis level) then the next step is to create the corresponding activity diagram model to illustrate the flow of control between objects and the encapsulated units of work. The use-case scenario model and the activity model represent the same information but from different view points.

The static and dynamic aspects of the process view are captured with the same kinds of diagrams as in the design view, but with the focus on the active classes that represent the threads and processes in the system.

Implementation view

The implementation view describes the decomposition of the software system from the developer’s perspective. It establishes the hierarchical organization of directories in terms of layers, subsystems, components, classes, property-files, configuration-files, standard and generic library components, and other artifacts needed to assemble and release the physical system. This view also addresses the configuration and deployment management of the system’s releases which may be made up of somewhat independent components and files and assembled in various ways to produce a running system. Component diagrams are used to model static aspects. Interaction, state-machine, and activity diagrams are used to model dynamic aspects.

The screen shot below shows the directories that comprise the implementation view of a project called CashSales. All UML diagram files are located under the uml directory. Each UML diagram is assigned to one of the five architecture views. Project information not related to software development appears elsewhere in the file system.

cashsales dir structure

The same view from the modeling tool shows another perspective.

modeling tool view

A more complex project such as one based on the JEE platform could have a directory structure as show below. Note that each application (e.g. Library-Manager), component and framework has its own source directory (i.e. src) and package tree rooted at ch.bigelow. The docroot directory is used to hold files belonging to the web server.

JEE structure

Each JEE component is structured to contain specialized sub-packages.


Power tools

To work efficiently we need power tools and the availability of an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) to keep code and models in sync. For Java development Borland's Together is recommended because it uses the source code as the reference for constructing UML diagrams instead of a meta-data repository. When UML diagrams are derived from the source code the design model reflects the state of the code and you have a single point of maintenance. As a result, when you are modeling you are coding, and when you are coding you are modeling.

Without such a tool to automatically keep the model and the code in sync, producing UML diagrams amounts to basically just drawing pictures which can only serve as a front-end activity to jump-start a project. Once implementation begins, the design will disappear into the code and diverge in different directions from where it can no longer be observed and controlled. The failure of other UML tools to keep model and code in sync (despite marketing claims to the contrary) provides developers with a reasonably good excuse to skip the analysis and design phase and just start coding.



Quote StartAt the heart of object oriented problem solving is the construction of a model.


Quote StartObject-oriented programming is about developing an executable implementation of a design model.


Quote StartAn design model that cannot be executed has no practical value.


Quote StartThe use of color in both code and models improves developer efficiency.


Quote StartThe top-level architecture model is best described by five interlocking views.


Quote StartA functional decomposition type-of-design doesn't map naturally to the problem domain.


Quote StartA use-case represents a collection of scenarios for a single task or goal.


Quote StartIt is much more cost effective to discover missing objects or deficient messages in the behavior model then it is in the code.


Quote StartObjects that appear in use-case interaction diagrams are instances of the classes that appear in the design view.


Quote StartThe process view encompasses the threads and processes that form the system’s concurrency and synchronization mechanisms.


Quote StartActivity diagrams emphasize the flow of control from activity to activity and represent another way to describe a use-case scenario.


Quote StartThe implementation view describes the decomposition of the system from the developer’s perspective.


Quote StartWithout a tool to automatically keep the model and the code in sync, producing UML diagrams amounts to basically just drawing pictures which can only serve as a front-end activity to jump-start a project.

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